CANNABIS CULTURE – A captivating present archeological concept proposes that a selection of historic depictions of vegetation as the “Tree of Life” are historic illustrations figuring out hashish use as an historic entheogen. Interestingly, this can be a connection I personally first proposed in my 2001 guide, Sex, Drugs, Violence and the Bible.
More lately Diana Stein, a British archeologist, has instructed that the Assyrian Tree of Life pictures are possible associated to hashish. In two articles, ‘Winged Disks and Sacred Trees at Nuzi: An Altered Perspective on Two Imperial Motifs‘ (2009) and ‘The Role of Stimulants in Early Near Eastern Society: Insights through Artifacts and Texts’ (2017) Stein has made the suggestion that, early depictions of sacred tree flanked by Goats and different creatures might determine hashish
In widespread with the hashish plant’s unique habitat, the tree on Proto-Elamite, Nuzi, and Middle Assyrian seals grows in the mountains (fig. 10a–c and f, fig. 18a–b). The Proto-Elamite timber are sometimes brief and have a skinny stem with irregular branches like hashish seedlings (fig. 10a and fig. 11). Proto- Elamite, Akkadian and Late Bronze Age examples may be spherical (fig. 18a–b, fig. 19c–d) or conical like sure hashish varieties (fig. 10b and fig. 12). Others resemble flowering shoots (fig. 13), a single leaf (fig. 14), or a person blade (fig. 15). The clusters of flowers that cling from flowering male crops could also be rendered schematically as hanging bulbs or volutes on timber from Nuzi (fig. 16 and fig. 17a–c).(Stein, 2009)
She goes on to notice that the sacred tree of these earlier photographs, was tailored into later extra refined Assyrian photographs of the Tree of life, and nonetheless retained their sacred affiliation with hashish.
…[I]t appears unlikely that the sacred tree motif, a central function in the state iconography of the Assyrian empire, represents the date palm, [a common hypothesis] a quintessentially southern species that doesn’t develop north of Samarra. By the first millennium BCE, the goats, the hunters, and the worshippers, who had flanked the sacred tree and the Qunnabu, the possible Assyrian phrase for hashish, is attested in texts of the first millennium BCE. It happens in a Neo-Assyrian recipe for fragrance, and a up to date letter refers to its use in ritual contexts.
A later Neo-Babylonian textual content data the supply of giant portions of qunnabu to the nice temple of Eanna and Ebabbar, and there are recipes by which hemp is an ingredient of fragrant oil used for cultic functions.So hashish was obtainable in Mesopotamia throughout the sixth century BCE at the time when the Hebrew Bible was compiled in Babylon. There are not any legal guidelines or data of courtroom instances regarding the misuse of hashish or of some other psychotropic plant. But given the central position of magic and divination in on a regular basis Mesopotamian life,it’s conceivable that these who couldn’t afford the providers of the courtroom diviner, prophet, or magician turned to different strategies or mediums. The use of medicine in city contexts with out the conventional ritual constraints of tribal societies not solely poses a menace to organized faith, it additionally raises the long-standing controversy over the spiritual potentialities of psychedelic medicine. Do medicine like LSD reproduce the similar state of timeless bliss as aesthetic practices, notably meditation, as Aldous Huxley, Timothy Leary, and others famously claimed in the 1950s to 1970s? I recommend that this ongoing debate lies at the coronary heart of Genesis three, and that the fruit tree described by Eve as a supply of magnificence, meals, and information was, the truth is, a potent however harmful supply of enlightenment. If that’s the case, the authors of the story, in widespread with leaders of most established religions, take the stand that information of the religious sort can’t or shouldn’t be attained by means of hallucinogens. (Stein, 2009)winged disk on provincial seals of the previous, are changed by the king, and these two acquainted symbols are modified as soon as once more, this time maybe to mirror the king’s personal picture as a way towards enlightenment in addition to enlightenment itself. (Stein, 2009)
Image – Assyrian Tree of Life with the King
Stein’s analysis has garnered consideration as of late, via new curiosity in the position of psychoactive substances that has been generated by current research of residues in historic Near japanese artifacts that reveal that psychoactive substances comparable to hashish and opium, have been used ritually in historic occasions.
Interestingly, independently I got here to virtually similar conclusions about these historic sacred tree pictures in my 2001 guide, Sex, Drugs, Violence and the Bible :
A spiritual image which undoubtedly comes from the historic east is the Tree of Life. This is present in some of the earliest Sumerian artwork, and continues all through Mesopotamian historical past, being very outstanding in the Assyrian friezes of the first millennium B.C. The mythological conception of the Tree of Life can also be present in Genesis iii:22.(Saggs 1962).
Like the potential entheogenic references to the Tree of Knowledge, the unique Sumerian phrase for the Tree of Life contained etymological references to intoxicate. “In Sumerian the words for ‘live’ and ‘intoxicate’ are the same, TIN, and the ‘tree of life’, GEShTIN, is the ‘vine’”(Allegro 1970). The Hebrew phrase used for all times, (as in the Tree of Life), ‘chay’, has extra to do with enlivening, recent, or merriment, and the continued fecundity of nature quite than private immortalization.
In his dialogue of the Eden mythology, Harold Bloom factors out and questions that “Everything depends upon those two trees, of life and of knowing good and bad, or are they after all only one tree? Pragmatically they are, since only the tree of knowing good and bad is involved in the catastrophe, and also is J’s own invention. The Tree of Life is prevalent in the literature of the ancient Middle East, and I suspect that J interpolated this traditional tree into…[the]text as an interpretive afterthought”(Bloom 1990). A view that has has been held by different students;
“The principle of mythic dissociation, by which God and his world, immortality and mortality, are set apart in the Bible is expressed in a dissociation of the Tree of knowledge from the Tree of Immortal Life. The latter has become inaccessible to man through a deliberate act of God, whereas in other mythologies, both of Europe and of the Orient, the Tree of knowledge is itself the Tree of Immortal Life, and, moreover, still accessible to man.”(Campbell 1964)
Fig 1: The Basalt Stela of King Essarhaddon.
….An historic world image for the tree-of-life might be present in the Basalt stela of Assyrian king Esarhaddon, in the type of the elaborate wanting plant instantly behind the historic monarch (fig-1). In Green Gold the Tree of Life: Marijuana in Magic and Religion (1995) we used this for the depiction in the higher degree the place “king Esarhaddon stands before an elaborate incense chamber with smoking…censer pictured in cut-away in the lower portion of the chamber, the upper chamber is tent-like with an opening,” (Bennett et. al. 1995). The tent was used to carry the smoke of hashish incense, which the king would inhale by putting his head inside of it; a standard means of marijuana inhalation in the historic world, and an act of worship. “Cannabis as an incense was burned in the temples of Assyria and Babylon ‘because its aroma was pleasing to the Gods.’” (Benet 1975) An historic Babylonian inscription reads: “The glorious gods smell the incense, noble food of heaven; pure wine, which no hand has touched do they enjoy”. In Babylonian spiritual rites, “Inspiration was… derived… by burning incense, which, if we follow evidence obtained elsewhere, induced a prophetic trance. The gods were also invoked by incense.”(Mackenzie 1915).
“The Chaldean Magus used artificial means, intoxicating drugs for instance, in order to attain to this state of excitement, for it was only then that he succeeded, so to speak, in deifying himself, and received the homage of genii and spirits of nature…This doctrine prevailed also in the Accadian (Babylonian) magic books. This furnishes an affinity of conceptions and beliefs which is of great importance… These incantations, most of which go back to the deepest antiquity, were gathered in collections such as those we have fragments of… Acts of purification and mysterious rituals increased the power of the incantations… Among these mysterious rituals must be counted the use of enchanted potions… which undoubtedly contained drugs that were medically effective.”(Lenormant 1874).
In the second quarter of the first millennium B.C., the “word qunnabu (qunapy, qunubu, qunbu) begins to turn up as for a source of oil, fiber and medicine”(Barber 1989). In our personal time, quite a few students have come to acknowledge qunubu as an early reference to hashish. “It is said that the Assyrians used hemp as incense in the seventh and eighth century before Christ and called it ‘Qunubu’”( Schultes & Hoffman 1979).
Further, the pioneering analysis of etymologist Sula Benet led to the declare that “The ritual use of hemp as well as the name, cannabis… originated in the Ancient Near East”(Benet 1975)….This historic Assyrian identify qu-nu-bu, is the phonetic equal of the historic Hebrew identify for hemp, quaneh-bosm, [also translated as Kaneh Bosm]and the robust connections between the two may be seen in the comparable methods each Mesopotamian and Hebrew worshippers utilized the plant.
In a letter written in 680 BC to the mom of the aforementioned king Esarhaddon, reference is made to qu-nu-bu, that give clear indications as to what substance was burning in the king’s incense tent. In response to king Esarhaddon’s mom’s query as to “What is used in the sacred rites”, a excessive priest named Neralsharrani responded that “the main items…. for the rites are fine oil, water, honey, oderous plants (and) hemp [qunubu]”. As was talked about, the image behind king Esarhaddon, which additionally seems in quite a few different depictions, has “in modern literature on the subject…[,been] often described as the tree of life…but unfortunately no texts are known which describe in more detail the contents of these pictures”(Ringgren 1973).
Likewise, not one single merchandise from all of the present historic pictorial inscriptions has ever been recommended as an illustration of the historic qunubu, which by all accounts performed an important position in each life and worship in the historic Near East, notably in the Sacred Rites, which doubtless are what the aforementioned inscriptions symbolize. This research proposes that the unidentified image of the sacred plant, and the undepicted plant for the phrase qunubu, are in reality a phrase and image that describe the similar factor— Cannabis, which was grown and revered as the Tree of Life in the historic Near East.
The purpose that this connection has not been famous earlier than could also be resulting from the proven fact that in the Ancient Near East issues involving spiritual and technical strategies have been thought-about intently guarded secrets and techniques. Professor H.W.F. Saggs famous that texts coping with such issues ended with directions reminiscent of; “Let the initiate show the initiate; the non-initiate shall not see it. It belongs to the tabooed things of the great gods”. Such holy information was both solely handed alongside verbally and not dedicated to writing, or “were written in a manner which was deliberately obscure…”(Saggs 1969). The picture of the Tree of Life and its divine affiliation with the king, in addition to the use of hashish as an holy incense and entheogen each fall into such a class
Amongst the first to attach the sacred and unnamed tree in Assyrian artwork with the legendary Tree of Life, was Sir A.H.Layard, who described and commented on the image over a century and a half in the past. “I recognized in it the holy tree, or tree of life, so universally adored at the remotest period in the East, and which was preserved in the religious systems of the Persians to the final overthrow of their Empire…. The flowers were formed by seven petals”(Layard 1856) The “seven petals”, referred to by Layard, might be seen to be extra probably stylized depictions of the seven distinct spears of the hashish leaves, simply as the pine cone like objects held by the figures typically surrounding the plant, characterize the pine cone like buds of the sacred qunubu.(See Fig. 2)
Behind the sacred tree and Esarhaddon in fig. 1, sits the Bull of Creation, whereas under are the early instruments of historic agriculture, maybe indicating an intimate connection between the three symbols….
As the oldest recognized piece of woven fiber was created from hemp, together with the incontrovertible fact that the agricultural historical past of hashish, extends far-back past recorded historical past, there was hypothesis hashish was certainly the first crop of historic man. Cannabis’ hybridizing, whether or not for narcotic or fiber functions, is definitely recognized to predate recorded historical past. Indeed, with its helpful fiber, nutritious seeds, and aromatic incense it might have simply been conceived of as a Tree of Life in the historic world. In line with this view, are the phrases of the feminist Biblical scholar Tikva Frymer-Kensky, which would appear to point an intimate connection between weaving and the forbidden tree, probably hinting at a candidate providing each entheogenic and fibrous properties.
The coming of information is said very merely: “the eyes of both of them were opened and they perceived that they were naked”, a class that they had not perceived of their childlike innocence, however, as well as, they’re now capable of sew themselves loincloths out of the out there fig leaves. Somehow the information of this talent of stitching, the beginnings of cultural information, has include the consuming of the fruit of the information of all issues.(Frymer-Kensky 1992).
As Harvard University Professor of ethnobotany, Richard Evans Schultes has commented: “Early man experimented with all plant materials that he could chew and could not have avoided discovering the properties of cannabis (marijuana), for in his quest for seeds and oil, he certainly ate the sticky tops of the plant. Upon eating hemp, the euphoric, ecstatic and hallucinatory aspects may have introduced man to the other-worldly plane from which emerged religious beliefs, perhaps even the concept of deity. The plant became accepted as a special gift of the gods, a sacred medium for communion with the spiritual world and as such it has remained in some cultures to the present.” We can make certain that such results have been attributed to the plant by its historic Near Eastern partakers, simply as they’ve been by partakers of the plant the world over.
Fig.three Basalt Stela of King Assurbanipal and the Tree of Life
Engravings from the time of Assurbanipal, one other historic Assyrian king related to hashish, additionally depict the sacred tree proven in the basalt of his father, king Esarhaddon. Professor Widengren postulates that each temple had a holy grove, or backyard with a Tree of Life that was taken care of by the king, who functioned as a ‘master-gardener’. By watering and caring for the Tree of Life, the king gained energy over life (Widengren 1951). As a scribe of the Assyrian king Assurbanipal recorded in 650 B.C.: “We were dead dogs, but our lord the king gave us life by placing the herb of life beneath our noses,” (Ringgren 1973). This final factors to an incense, and by its identify, the “herb of life”, we will simply visualize it as the plant depicted in the historic stone engravings. Interestingly, we discover that Assurbanipal’s historic cunieform library contained recipes for cannabis incense which “are generally regarded as copies of much older texts” and this archeological proof “serves to project the origins of hashish back to the earliest beginnings of history.”.(Walton 1972)
Generally the pine cone like buds, held by the birdmen have been related to “pollination” of the sacred Tree, nevertheless in different depictions they’re being utilized in affiliation with the King in the similar method. What we steered in Sex, Drugs, Violence and the Bible, is that these pinecones have been stylized buds being collected from the Sacred Tree by the birdmen (themselves representing costumed winged shaman who might journey between worlds), and for this reason they carry woven baskets, and then its energy transferred to the King. Moreover, we all know that hashish was utilized in Assyrian rituals that revolved round these pictures. Particularly in affiliation with a god recognized variously as Ea, Enki, Oannes and different names, and whom greater than a number of researchers have steered was the prototype for Eden’s Serpent, and his mythology for different elements of the fantasy.
…the options of Ea’s idealistic homeland Dilmun “may underlie the Hebrew accounts of Paradise.”(Hooke 1963). Reminiscent of the serpents position in the Garden of Eden story, the fantasy of Dilmun data how the goddess Ninhursag “makes eight plants spring up…in spite of a prohibition Enki eats all eight of them….There are obviously certain similarities between this myth and the biblical picture of paradise…the eating of the forbidden plants is distantly reminiscent of the tree of knowledge in the garden of Eden.”(Rinngren 1973). In one other story, Enki angers the goddess mom of mankind and like the satan the serpent is claimed to characterize, he’s “exiled from the earth to the abyss.”(Campbell 1962).
EaEn-kiOannes, is depicted as a fish-man, having his roots in the living-water, however extra importantly, he has connections with a sacred tree just like that which is described in the Garden of Eden. In the historic Sumerian texts, EaEnkiOannes is described as being sensible like the biblical serpent and as he “who knows the plant of life and the water of life.”(Ringgren 1973). Professor Mackenzie, additionally famous this in 1915, commenting that “In a fragmentary Babylonian charm there is a reference to a sacred tree or bush at Eridu [Eridu is thought to be the cradle of Sumerian civilization]. Professor Sayce has suggested that it is the Biblical ‘Tree of Life’ in the Garden of Eden… It may be that Ea’s sacred bush or tree is a survival of tree and water worship.”(Mackenzie 1915):
“Ea is…the god of wisdom, ‘the king of wisdom, who creates understanding’, ‘the experienced one (apkallu) among the gods’, ‘he who knows everything that has a name’. It is he who gives the king wisdom. He is also the god of the art of incantation. In his temple ‘the house of Apsu’ in Eridu there was a notable tree, kiskanu, whose branches were used in ritual sprinklings…The incantation priest was the representative of Ea.” (Ringgren 1973)
R. Campbell Thompson, of the British Museum, disagreed with Sayce’s concept, talked about above, that the kiskanu was the unique Tree of Life. This distinction was based mostly on what Thompson noticed as Sayce’s misinterpretation of the etymological proof. However the Sumerian identify of the tree, kiskanu, which might appear to be at the base of the disagreement between the two students, serves as our connection between the Tree of Life and hashish. The kiskanu tree “was the central point of various rites. A holy grove in the temple is…mentioned.” (Ringgren 1973). The second half of the identify of this notable tree, kis-kanu has phonetic similarities with the early names for hashish, via the linguistic root an, “which is found in various cannabis related words”(Abel 1980); comparable to the historic Sanskrit identify for hemp kana, or kene, Persian canna,… [and other variations]…
That the kiskanu tree was utilized in ritual sprinklings reminiscent of these indicated in the historic depictions of the Tree of Life and it’s eagle headed genies, is of specific curiosity—For… [it has long been suggested that ]the historic Hebrews utilized kaneh-bosm (aromatic cane–hashish, in some biblical passages the single phrase kaneh is used) as an entheogen of their holy anointing oil, a apply adopted from the Canaanites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Egyptians and different teams from the historic close to east….
In mythology, one of Ea’s servants and adopted “son”, the hero and temple fisherman, Adapa, was known as the “ointment priest”, indicating the significance of the ceremony. The historic mythology has it that Adapa’s “command was like the command of Ea”. It was the ritual anointing of the priesthood of Ea, that empowered them to behave as the god’s consultant. Through this shamanic ceremony they turned “he whose ear Enki [Ea] has opened”. Religious scholar John Gray commented upon the Sumerian pantheon’s chief god, Anu’s resentment of Ea’s giving the information of the god’s to a mere human, Adapa,as being “strongly reminiscent of the divine resentment at Adam for presuming to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil.”(Gray 1969).
A ritual enactment of Ea and Adapa’s relationship was utilized to kings, who acquired their knowledge from Ea. Thus, it isn’t shocking that Ea seems in hymns from each Ashurbanipal and Esarhaddon with particular reverence, or that the two kings are in contrast and related to Ea’s anointing priest, Adapa. The mythology surrounding the god additionally signifies that he might ‘open the ear’ of his initiates in the event that they burned incense to him, indicating an identical psychoactive ingredient to that present in the anointing oil. Likewise it was the ritual anointing of Moses and the Levite priesthood with the sacred hashish ointment, together with burning the oils and vegetable matter of the plant earlier than the ark of the covenant, which enabled them to talk on behalf of the Lord. (Bennett & McQueen, 2001)
Assyriologist R campbell Thompson famous that the kiskanu tree was fairly prevalent as the historic texts discuss with the the “kiskanu, which ‘grows like a forest’ or ‘grove’” (Thompson, 1903). Referring to an incantation textual content relating to the kiskanu R. Campbell Thompson described:
This doc… indicated to the magician, who was about to deal with his stricken affected person, that a sure sort of plant or tree, the unique which… grew in Eridu, and… contained magical qualities; and appearing on this info the magician was directed to make use of a potion of the kiskanu plant or tree on behalf of the stated affected person. The textual content truly states the gods themselves made use of this plant to work a miracle of therapeutic, and the implication is that the kiskanu plant was on this event of nice profit, it might once more be made to carry out the therapeutic of a sufferer… offered that appropriate phrases of energy have been recited… and applicable ceremonies have been carried out, earlier than the plant itself was used as a treatment. (Thompson, 1903)
Images from Sex, Drugs, Violence and the Bible Depicting Ea/Enk/Oannes with the Sacred Tree and pictures of the woven basket used to gather the pine cone like buds from it. Note the disembodied eye over the tree, a picture that has been related to states of sacred intoxication.
As I famous in Cannabis and the Soma Solution:
In the 19th century George Rawlinson famous of the pine cone like buds from the Assyria Tree of Life, that it’s “as though it were the medium of communication between the protector and protected, the instrument by means of which grace and power passed from the genius to the mortal which he had under his care” (Rawlinson, 1881). As Rawlinson’s modern Francois Lenormant famous, “Often … it is held under the king’s nose, that he may breathe it” (Lenormant, et al., 1881). A scribe of the Assyrian king Assurbanipal recorded in 650 BC: “We were dead dogs, but our lord the king gave us life by placing the herb of life beneath our noses” (Ringgren, 1973).
When one reads the full passage relating to the qunnabu reference in the Sacred Rites in relation to the stella with Esarhaddon, the incense tent, Tree of Life, and the sacred ox, their connection is much more cemented, as is the imagery of the woven basket depicted in the different photographs of the Tree of Life:
“To the queen mother, my ‘lord’: your servant, Nergal-šarrani. Good health to the queen mother, my ‘lord.’ May Nabû and Marduk bless the queen mother, my ‘lord,’ May Tašmetu, whom you revere, take your hands. May you see 1,000 years of kingship for Esarhaddon.”
“As for what the queen mother, my Lord, wrote to me, saying: ‘What is going into the ritual?’ —”
“These are its constituents: sweet-scented oil, wax, sweet-scented fragrance, myrrh, cannabis [ŠEM.ŠEŠ ŠEM.qu-nu-bu], and ṣadīdu-aromatic. [I will] perform it [for a]ll [the … th]at the queen mother com[manded].”
“[On the xth] day, they will perform the whole-offerings: one ox, two white sheep, and a duck.”
“Damqaya, the maid-servant of the queen mother, will not be able to participate in the ritual. (Accordingly,) whomever the queen mother, my ‘lord,’ designates should open the basket and perform the ritual.”
So right here we see hashish, in affiliation with each the sacred ox, or sacrificial “Great Bull that treadest the celestial herbage” in the stella from Esarhaddon, in addition to a reference to the “basket” from the different depictions of the Tree of Life, making it clear a connection exists to the pictures of the sacred tree and hashish.
It ought to be remembered that each Stein and I’m going into rather more element about all this in our work, and there’s rather more too it than could be introduced right here. I reached out to Dr. Stein, to not attempt to take credit score for these theories, however out of pleasure at the additional unbiased affirmation. In a response she wrote. “The excerpts out of your publications make fascinating studying, and I’ll comply with up on some of your references. Yes, we appear to be shifting alongside parallel paths. But whereas you’re at liberty to select and select between footage and textual references from totally different durations and cultures, I’m extra constrained by the guidelines of academia and have to elucidate the methodology and justify the reasoning behind each level I make.” A good sufficient level, whereas she is constrained by academia to comply with such protocols, I’m a contract researcher who started his personal inquiry after a profound spiritual expertise in 1990 the place I felt it was revealed to me that hashish was the Tree of Life of the Bible’s ebook of Revelation. As nicely, even the affiliation of the Assyrian Tree of Life pictures being related to hashish was one thing that I now understand first got here to me in a dream….
In the 90s I used to be in the behavior of recording my goals in a dream diary, though I’m proper handed I might document my goals in my left hand, in an try and trigger a synapses cross over between the proper and left mind, that’s the reason the hand writing and drawing are so notably dangerous (though I’m a messy author). On April seventh 1994 I recorded the following dream and picture:
Remembering that the picture drawn was from a reminiscence of a dream, it’s a significantly shut approximation of the Assyrian pictures. As properly it was discovered alongside a river, which is symbolic of consciousness shifting by way of time, a connection probably indicated in the Book of Revelations reference to “Then he showed me a river of the water of life, [a]clear as crystal, coming from the throne of God and of [b]the Lamb, in the middle of its street. On either side of the river was the tree of life, bearing twelve kinds of fruit, yielding its fruit every month; and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations”. Indeed, it was studying these very phrases in 1990, and the recognition this was a reference to the hashish plant and its many medical and industrial purposes, that set my life course. I’ve travelled alongside many homes and learn many books, and now it appears we’re upon the doorways of the University, a logo of the educational world with this type of analysis….. It was truly my very own doubt of these experiences that led to my researching the historical past of hashish, a topic I’ve coated in four books and dozens of articles. For I figured if there was something to those revelations I had, then someone else someday or someplace would know as nicely… And what I say to you after that almost three many years of research on the topic is, there’s a place the place science and the religious world of Humanity meet, and in that place, you will discover the most sacred of earth’s crops rising, and that herb is a revelation in each realms, providing new medicines to heal the sick, methods to vary business so it advantages the planet as an alternative of harming it in addition to new methods of perceiving the Human Experience and the Religions of Man, and it’s the Universal Spirit’s love letter to you, in addition to a sacred present from our ancestors. Not surprisingly an growing quantity of spiritually minded hashish activists have adopted this symbolic analogy, many drawing their very own unbiased conclusions on it, and have begun to make approach for the as soon as and future Tree of Life and the therapeutic of the nations which it provides humanity.